Most countries have set up structures and programs for new business creation and financing. We analyze strategies implemented in France, Germany and United Kingdom, where the proportion of government funds in venture capital financing is significantly smaller than in the Quebec, yet the rate of creation and growth of tech start-ups is comparable. In these countries, intervention is based on R&D, transfer, incubation and start-up, in high technology industries exclusively. Except in France, universities are pivotal to new business creation. Internal or subordinated divisions of ministries are created to manage and evaluate governmental programs, define priorities and avoid financing non-crucial industries. Often of limited duration, government programs must abide by rigorous performance and accreditation criteria. Tax incentives are generally not associated with these initiatives.

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